In the early morning hours of August 31, the final American troopers lifted off from Kabul airport, formally ending the 20-year battle in Afghanistan, the longest in US historical past.
At its peak in 2011, the US had approximately 100,000 troops throughout no less than 10 navy bases from Bagram to Kandahar. In whole, greater than 800,000 US troopers served within the battle in accordance with the Pentagon.
While no US troops stay on the bottom immediately, US President Joe Biden mentioned that his navy will proceed to conduct air raids in opposition to enemy targets from “over-the-horizon” – air missions from an enormous community of US bases across the area.
Upwards of 750 US bases world wide
According to David Vine, professor of political anthropology on the American University in Washington, DC, the US had round 750 bases in no less than 80 international locations as of July 2021.
The precise quantity could also be even larger as not all knowledge is revealed by the Pentagon.
With 120 energetic bases, Japan has the very best variety of US bases on the earth adopted by Germany with 119 and South Korea with 73.
US navy base websites fall below two principal classes:
Large bases or “Bases”: Defined as navy installations bigger than four hectares (10 acres) or price greater than $10 million. These bases sometimes have in extra of 200 US navy personnel. 439 or 60 p.c of the US’s international bases fall below this class.
Small bases or “Lily Pads”: These bases are smaller than four hectares(10 acres) or have a price of lower than $10 million. These embrace cooperative safety places and ahead working websites. The remaining 40 p.c of US international bases fall below this class.
According to world US navy deployment knowledge revealed within the Conflict Management and Peace Science Journal, the US had round 173,000 troops deployed in 159 international locations as of 2020.
Like the US bases, the international locations with essentially the most variety of US troops embrace Japan with 53,700, Germany with 33,900 and South Korea with 26,400.
US navy presence within the Middle East
According to the Watson Institute at Brown University, between 1.9 and three million US service members have served in Afghanistan and Iraq since 2001, with over half of them deployed greater than as soon as.
The largest US navy set up within the Middle East is the Al Udeid Air Base, positioned west of Doha, Qatar. Established in 1996, it hosts round 11,000 American and coalition service members. Covering an space of 24 hectares (60 acres), the bottom accommodates almost 100 plane in addition to drones.
On October 7, 2001, the US below President George W Bush invaded Afghanistan following the 9/11 assaults. The coalition he led accused the ruling Taliban regime of harbouring Osama bin Laden, the al-Qaeda chief who claimed accountability for the assaults.
An estimated 241,000 folks have died as a direct results of the battle since 2001, in accordance with the Costs of War challenge at Brown University. In addition, a whole lot of 1000’s extra, principally civilians, have died resulting from starvation, illness and harm brought on by the devastating battle.
In 2003, the US invaded Iraq after it accused long-time Iraqi chief Saddam Hussein of getting weapons of mass destruction – none was discovered. At its peak in 2007, the US had an estimated 170,000 troops within the nation. Today, there are round 2,500 US troops within the nation as a part of a safety settlement with the Iraqi authorities.
US navy presence in Japan and South Korea
The US has been in Japan because the finish of World War II (1939-1945) and in South Korea because the Korean War (1950-1953).
Nearly half of all US navy deployed overseas, some 80,100 American personnel, are stationed in Japan with 53,700 and South Korea with 26,400.
South Korea hosts Camp Humphreys, the most important abroad US navy base, positioned approximately 65km (40 miles) south of the capital Seoul.
The 1,398 hectares (3,454 acres) base is one in all 80 bases within the nation and is lower than 100km (60 miles) from the closely fortified demilitarized zone that demarcates North Korea from South Korea.
US navy presence in Europe
Europe is home to no less than 60,000 US troops. At 33,900, Germany has the very best variety of US troops in Europe – and the second highest on the earth – adopted by Italy at 12,300 and the UK at 9,300. However, the variety of US troops stationed in Germany has greater than halved between 2006 and 2020, dropping from 72,400 to 33,900.
The Ramstein Air Base in Germany is the most important hub for US troops and navy provides in Europe. Just outdoors the 1,200 hectares (3,000 acres) base is the Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, the most important US navy hospital outdoors the US. The facility was used extensively through the Afghanistan and Iraq wars and handled 1000’s of wounded troopers.
Like nearly all US bases, Ramstein is supplied with hospitals, faculties, energy stations, condominium complexes and a bunch of facilities sometimes called “Burger Kings and bowling alleys”.
US navy presence in Latin America
Located on the japanese tip of Cuba, the Guantanamo Bay naval base is the US’s oldest abroad navy base. The 116sq km (45 sq miles) facility has been below American management because the finish of the 19th century.
The base is a hotly debated challenge between the US and Cuba. For a long time, Cuba has insisted that the US hand again the territory it took by drive in 1898 and subsequently leased completely in 1903.
US troop deployment since 1950
Over the previous 70 years, the US navy has been deployed to greater than 200 international locations and territories.
The infographic under reveals a short historical past of the place the US has deployed its troops because the finish of World War II, together with the wars it has fought in.
Following the give up of the Japanese to the Allies that ended World War II, the US and the Soviet Union divided Korea, which had been below Japanese rule, alongside the 38th parallel, roughly bisecting the Korean peninsula.
On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces, backed by China and the Soviet Union, invaded the South triggering the beginning of the Korean War. Allied with the South, the US deployed some 1.78 million troops over the three-year-long battle.
It is estimated that between 2 to three million civilians died through the battle. According to the US Department of Defense, the US suffered 33,739 deaths in battle. No formal peace treaty was ever signed.
Tensions between the US and the Soviet Union continued to brew in Southeast Asia within the 1950s and 1960s. The principal battle pitted the communist authorities of North Vietnam in opposition to South Vietnam and its ally, the US.
Over 3.four million US troops have been deployed to Southeast Asia; in extra of three million folks, together with over 58,000 Americans, have been killed within the battle.
On March 29, 1973, the final US fight troops left Vietnam. Two years afterward April 30, 1975, communist forces seized management of South Vietnam and ended the battle.
On August 2, 1990, the Iraqi military invaded Kuwait, a small oil-rich nation to the nation’s south. One week later, on August 9, the US started Operation Desert Shield, and deployed 1000’s of troops to Saudi Arabia.
During the temporary battle, round 694,550 American troops have been deployed to the area. On February 28, 1991, US President George HW Bush declared a ceasefire, and on April Three of that very same 12 months, the UN handed a decision formally ending the battle.
The interval following the 9/11 assaults, and the declaration of battle on each Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003, noticed a big spike in troops overseas. At least 800,000 Americans served in Afghanistan and greater than 1.5 million in Iraq over the previous 20 years.
The human price of the wars is estimated to have killed greater than 900,000 folks – principally civilians.
US navy spending since 1950
In 2020, the US spent $778bn on its navy – the most important navy spender on the earth and greater than the following 10 international locations mixed – in accordance with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
China ranked second at $252bn, adopted by India at $73bn, Russia at $62bn and the UK at $59bn.
Over the previous 20 years alone, the US has spent $eight trillion on its so-called “global war on terror” in accordance with the Costs of War challenge at Brown University. The battle in Afghanistan accounts for $2.Three trillion which, in accordance with Brown University researchers, equals greater than $300 million a day for 20 years.
$2.1 trillion was spent on the wars in Iraq and Syria, and $355bn was attributed to different wars. The remainder of the cash consists of in extra of $1bn in curiosity funds for the massive quantities of cash borrowed to fund the wars in addition to greater than $2.2bn in obligations for veterans’ care over the following 30 years. This implies that, even after the US has left Afghanistan, it can proceed to pay for the wars for years to come back.